Resources

Ore Types

Quartz - Si02 - Quartz (SiO2) is crystalline silica and the major proportion of most sands. It is generally mined as industrial, glass or foundry sands. The chemical impurities, size distribution, and particle shape dictate the end use. The United States alone produces approximately 25 million metric tons per year with the majority being used as glass sand. || more
Quartz is the most common silica crystal and the second most common mineral on the earth’s surface. It is the most common gangue mineral. Silica makes up about one fifth of the earth’s crust in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Quartz is a major component in all common rock-forming silicate minerals except calcite. However, high purity, commercially available deposits are less frequent.It has a hexagonal crystal structure made of trigonal-crystallized silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2), with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The production of high purity sand for many industrial uses requires the flotation of gangue minerals such as, iron, aluminum, and magnesium away from quartz. High-grade fatty acids, natural and synthetic petroleum sulfonates, promoters, and frothers are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
Industrial and glass sands are mined for use in industrial glass, windows, TV tubes, computer screens, golf course sands, foundry sands, blasting sands, metal castings, paint fillers, chemical production, prisms, lenses, abrasives, refractories and precision instruments, insulation, precious gems, ornamental stones and carvings to name a few.
 

Close

Calcite (Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3) - Calcite It is one of the most abundant minerals and the main constituent of limestone. Most calcium carbonate occurs as limestone however, heat and pressure can form the metamorphic form, marble. || more
Calcite is generally mined as limestone or marble depending on the end use. The chemical impurities, size distribution, and physical makeup dictate its end use.

Calcium carbonate crystallizes in rhombohedral, scalenohedral or prismatic systems. It is found in various colors and in masses: compact, microcrystalline (limestone), saccharoidal (marbles), fibrous (alabasters), concretionary (stalactites and stalagmites), pulverulent, and oolitic. It is soft with a Mohs hardness of 3.0 and a specific gravity of 2.71.

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The production of high purity calcium carbonate requires the use of flotation for removal of contaminants such as, iron, magnesium, and silica and silicates. High-grade imidazolines, cationic collectors, and flocculants are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses

Calcium carbonates are mined for use in the paper and paint industries as a filler and coating agent and in plastics for extending polymers and reducing costs. It is used in the food industry as a calcium and dietary supplement, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. It is used in adhesives and caulks, joint and Latex carpet compounds, and flooring and roofing materials.
 

Close

Mica - Mica is a group of monoclinic minerals of the general formula (K, Na, Ca) (Mg, Fe, Li, Al)2-3 (Al, Si)4O10(OH, F)2. Micas are the prominent rockforming constituents of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Only feldspars and quartz are more abundant in the earth’s crust. || more
Mica is used in electric insulators, paints, and dusting agents.

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The production of mica requires the use of flotation using high-grade amines and petroleum sulfonates. Each is custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
Mica is used to provide lightweight insulation to suppress sound and vibration, to improve the resistance of film to water penetration and weathering, to brighten the tone of color pigments and to provide an anti-sticking agent in rubber products. It is also used for electrical and heat insulation, in the manufacturing of fireproof paints, and as a dry lubricant
 

Close

Fieldspar (Aluminum Silicates) - Feldspar is a group of abundant rock-forming minerals with the general formula MAl(Al, Si)3O8, where M can be K, Na, Ca, Ba, Rb, Sr, or Fe. || more
Feldspars are aluminum silicates combined with varying percentages of potassium, sodium, and calcium. Feldspars are the most abundant mineral group making up about half of the earth’s crust. Common forms of fieldspar are:

- Albite (NaAlSi3O8) - sodium feldspar
- Microcline (KalSi3O8) - potassium feldspar
- Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) - calcium feldspar

Feldspars are commonly associated with quartz and mica and may also contain spodumene (lithium aluminosilicate), kaolin, garnet, or iron bearing minerals. Feldspars occur in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. They are generally mined for use in glass and ceramics.Feldspars have either a monoclinic or triclinic crystalline structure with a hardness of 6.0-6.5 on the Mohs scale with a specific gravity ranging from 2.55 to 2.72

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The production of high quality feldspar requires the use of flotation for removal of contaminants such as mica, iron-bearing minerals, and silica. High-grade reagents such as amines, imidazolines, fatty acids, and petroleum sulfonates are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
The major use of feldspar is in the manufacturing of glass. Feldspar provides alumina for improving durability, hardness and resistance to chemical corrosion. It is also widely used in ceramics as a flux. Other uses include the paint industry, use in latex foam, use as a mild abrasive, and as a welding rod coating. It is also used for ceramic glazes, light bulbs, and safety glass in windshields, for repairing bones in bioceramic implants and for improving optical lenses.
 

Close

Vermiculite - Vermiculite is the geologic name given to a group of hydrated laminar minerals that is aluminum-iron-magnesium silicate and resembles mica in appearance. || more
The chemical formula for vermiculite is (Mg, Ca, K, Fe+2)3(Si, Al, Fe+3)4O10(OH)2•4H2O. When subjected to heat, vermiculite has the unusual property of exfoliating, or expanding, due to the interlaminar generation of steam.

Vermiculite is mined using open-pit methods. All mined vermiculite is dried and sized at the mine site prior to exfoliation and the resulting lightweight material is chemically inert, fire resistant, and odorless. Vermiculite can absorb such liquids as fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides, which can then be transported as free-flowing solids. It is mined and expanded in several States.

Vermiculite has a monoclinic crystalline structure and is relatively soft with a hardness of 2-3 on Mohs scale. It has a specific gravity of 2.4 – 2.7.
Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The United States is second in worldwide production of vermiculite and the leader in consumption. Ore bodies typically contain about 35% vermiculite with the balance consisting of mica, chlorite, and other sheet silicates. High-grade fatty acids and petroleum sulfonates are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
When heated vermiculite becomes exfoliated (expanded) and possesses absorptive, insulating, and ion exchange properties that serve many uses in industries such as, agricultural, ready-mix plaster and cement premixes, and insulation and lightweight concrete aggregate. It is also used as an absorbent for industrial spill cleanup, an alternative to asbestos for brake linings, in refractory mold releases, and as a water filtration medium in aquaculture.
 

Close

Kaolin Clay - Kaolin Clay or Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) is the layer silicate mineral with one tetrahedral sheet linked through oxygen to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. It is also sometimes referred to as China Clay. || more
Kaolin is formed by the alteration of feldspars and other aluminum-bearing minerals. Crystal are very rare. It is usually found in rather friable, earthy or clayey aggregates. It may vary in color from brown to yellowish-gray, depending on impurities.

When mixed with water it becomes plastic and easy to mold however, it loses water between 390 and 450 degrees Celsius. It is very soft with a hardness of 2.0-2.5 on the Mohs scales and has a specific gravity of 2.58-2.60. It is monoclinic in structure

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
The production of kaolin requires flotation for the removal of colored impurities, as the goal is to produce a final product white in color. High-grade fatty acids and petroleum sulfonates are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
Kaolin clays are widely used in the China clay industry and as a filler for paper and rubber. It is also used in medicines, cosmetics, firebrick, porcelain and tiles.
 

Close

Barite - Barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate. It is generally white or colorless and is the main source of barium. || more
It is a common gangue mineral in medium and low temperature hydrothermal veins, associated with lead, silver and antimony sulfides. Also found in hot springs. Occurs in massive form in iron and manganese bearing jaspers and rarely in crystals in cavities in basaltic rocks. For a non-metallic mineral it is considerably heavy with a specific gravity of 4.48. It has a hardness of 2.5-3.5 on the Mohs scale. Some variations are fluorescent in ultraviolet light.

Barite has an orthorhombic crystalline system and may occur as tubular crystals that may be colorless, yellow, red, green or sometimes black. Occasionally, groups of plates may form fan shapes or rosettes. Occurrences may also be compact, granular, and massive, or earthy and stalactitic masses.

Crystalline Structures
Production/Benefication
Barite ores are finely ground to liberate the mineral and flotation processes are required, producing relatively high recoveries in excess of 90 percent. High-grade fatty acids and petroleum sulfonates are custom blended and/or manufactured by ArrMaz for specific use at each plant.

End Uses
Barite is used as an additive in mud when drilling for oil, in paints, enamels, and plastics, in the paper and rubber industries, in radiography (barium milk shake), as a screen for intense radiation mixed with cement mortar, and to make expensive white pigment. It has also been found as a good material for brake pads and clutches in cars and trucks.
 

Close